blow up football tunnel Spectres of the Burma Jungle, Orde Charles Wingate and his Chindits defeat the murderous Japanese.
In the almost indestructible bushes, a team of sweaty Japanese soldiers slowly advanced.On the one hand, they carry a tento (machete) used to cut the road, on the other hand, their standard problem is the Arisaka 99 type 7.7mm rifle fixed with bayonet.Their spirits are high, the Imperial Japanese Army seems invincible, and their progress is relentless and unsympathetic because many of them have been killed and tortured at random.They came to a natural clearing and sat there smoking, drinking and laughing.Almost silent figures emerged from the surrounding jungle, except for Gunsho (sergeant), before the scruffy bearded man in sweat-stained uniforms and slouchy hats joined his comrades in hell, who was asked about the movement of the Japanese army.It may seem cruel, but these war-weary British soldiers, who do not have the facilities of prisoners, have witnessed countless atrocities when many Imperial Japanese troops killed and maimed innocent men, women and children, just for fun, use them for live bayonet practice or beheading.This terrible incident has been repeated, and the frequency is getting higher and higher, greatly shaking the Japanese command, as they have become accustomed to more or less not opposing their progress towards their final destination through Myanmar --India.Judging from their increasing casualties, they think that the British have at least one commando in the jungle hunting them down, and their progress has slowed down, as the smile on their faces freezes, they are constantly looking at their shoulders now.In Britain in 1943, and a major war against Nazi Germany and Italy, now involved in the Far East war in support of the United States, without declaring war, he suffered a cowardly attack on Pearl Harbor.Japan entered World War II in difficult times, posing a serious threat to British colonies in Malaya, Singapore and India, not forgetting the jewelry of Australia and New Zealand.Many important raw materials, including rubber, are also in danger.The Japanese are fanatical and ruthless fighters who once entered the jungle areas of Malaya and Myanmar, with few objections initially.The United States may have these equipment and quantities, but their troops have little or no experience in this jungle war.After the fall of Singapore, Britain is clear that the only way to slow down or eliminate this threat is not to defend against the back foot, but, by fighting with the Japanese hand in the dense jungle, bring the war to them.Therefore, the concept of China has been formed, and it is the product of British generals, wildewell and Olde Wingate.Before we begin to say a word or two to this manOlde Charles Wingate, a very unusual British general, designed a thorough approach to radically changing the way war fought in a jungle setting.His thoughts and tactics have had a huge impact on the war in the Far East, his wit and the tenacious support of the awesome Chinese people.In February 1903, in the vicinity of naitar almoira, the brothers and parents of Plymouth, India, worked as an instructor in Lijing, Hong Kong.When he left school in 1923, Wingate was commissioned to enter the Royal Artillery Force, and in the five years between 1922 and 1927, he also studied at the London Institute of Oriental Studies.He then served in the Sudan Defense Forces (1928-33) there he studied Arabic and semi-illiterate and gained a wealth of working knowledge about the Middle East and its people.In 1936, his superiors identified him as a very talented officer and promoted him to the captain;Subsequently, Wingate was seconded to the intelligence personnel of the Palestinian Eretz Yisrael (Israeli land.Using his very unconventional talents, he organized, trained and led attacks on Arab terrorists who frequently attacked British forces and Jews in the region.He created a specially trained "Special Night team", which is mainly composed of fighters from Haganah (Jewish paramilitary force), which was achieved throughout Yishuv (Palestinian Jewish settlement)Their approach is based on his novel tactics of using surprise, mobile and night attacks, which they serve effectively both in defensive and offensive situations.During his time in the area, he was very respectful to the Jews and learned Hebrew.âx80x9cha-(the friend).In July 1938, he was seriously injured. after recovering from his injuries, he was seconded to serve under General Archibald wave, head of the Middle East Command.In 1940-41. he trained and led one in Ethiopia.A Sudanese border of British, Egyptian and Sudanese soldiers.It is well known that the fight against the Italian Army in the region has been very successful, consisting of 1770 people and thousands of camels carrying their equipment and supplies.However, this early commando-style unit was a previously unknown concept for Italians who were confused about how best to deal with it, giving Wingate an obvious advantage.At one time, Wingate used the power of hundreds of people and the service of an excellent linguist to put 12,000 and a halfThe Italian Army surrendered to them and told them that a large army was coming.May 1941.February 1941.However, Wingate began to feel frustrated that he was pushed out by his friends and colleagues, collapsed in body and nerves, and eventually attempted suicide by cutting his throat with a bayonet.However, he quickly recovered from injury and mental breakdown and found it to be his reputation. This little problem did not ruin his career as Wingate, and his troops gave some senior officers to the British Army.In May 1942, Wingate was promoted to colonel and sent to Myanmar, where he used British, Burmese and Nepalese troops to form the "Wingate Raiders "--Although they are more called "China", named after the Myanmar word "China", meaning a lion;Lion statues from temples guarding Myanmar.Commander, General waverville.In-The Indian chief has gone through the wacky behaviour of wingate heights and is close to the court, which is not very impressedWhen he was general, he was criticized for not obeying orders-Military officer in the Middle EastUsing wingate penetration's remote penetration concept, this group spreads fear, uncertainty and confusion to the Japanese after their own route.They harass them with classic hitsand-So far, Japan has only had real military success.Now they have to fight enemies they can't see or predict, which hurts their bodies and, more importantly, their pride.Infantry Brigade) is the largest allied special forces in World War 2nd, fighting in the war against Japan, deep behind enemy lines in northern Myanmar.They lived in the Japanese-occupied Burmese jungle for months, fighting the enemy, rely entirely on the Royal Air Force Special squadron of six C47 Dakotas to drop their supplies and what they can collect from the jungle.There have been two major Chinese expeditions into Myanmar, the first in February 1943, the "Dragon Cave operation" composed of British troops ", ghurkha and some Burmese Rifles used his innovative training methods to form a seven column of about 3,000 people, with hundreds of mules, cattle and elephants carrying their supplies.The men vowed to go deep into Myanmar, with the initial goal of cutting off the trunk line between Mandalay and Myitkyina, harassing enemies in the Shwebo area and crossing the Irrawaddy River, it also destroyed the railway line between Mandalay and raxio.The first priority is 150 miles east, which is critical to their plans to reach their target undiscovered.India division of KalewaThis succeeded, the main force arrived at the railway line in 2 weeks, did not meet any Japanese and was re-Supplied by the Royal Air Force's C47 Dakotas at the target location.On the railway line, however, the two columns were somehow ambushed and suffered heavy casualties.The rest of the column managed to blow up the railway line in at least 75 places within a 30-mile distance.Unfortunately, the line was interrupted for only about a week due to the use of brutal forced slave labor, but the Japanese were shaken to the core.On the face of it, on the military level, the operation completed by Wingate seems to have failed because of the high turnover rate, and the Chinese army has only caused obvious minor damage to the Japanese army.However, from a psychological point of view, its attack forced the Japanese to give up the planned aggression against India and, more importantly, helped boost the morale of the British Army in the region.The emergence of Chindits was particularly successful along the Irrawaddy River, where they caused great damage and brought uncertainty to Japan's supply lines.Chindits also sent information about the area to the Royal Air Force, which has greatly helped their actions in an accidental bombing.With the Irrawaddy region, China is becoming more and more difficult to locate and relocate.The high temperatures of air, disease and extreme humidity also caused their losses.In the end, Wingate was forced to reassess the situation before reaching his third goal and ordered a return to India.They lost 883 out of 3,000, and they spent 12 weeks in the stinking jungle, traveling an incredible 1,000 miles on the most difficult terrain.Of the 2182 people who returned, 600 were in serious or weak condition and were unable to resume work immediately, and many were hospitalized.The hands of othersPicked some and the rest were very honored to return to their original unit.Despite its devastating effects on the Japanese, Wingate sees this as a frustrating personal failure.However, the difficult territory and the presence of China forced Japan to completely re-evaluate the situation and by the end of 1943, the Japanese had abandoned the idea of invading India, because they think the jungle outside the chindewen River in Myanmar is insurmountable and full of British commandos, they will try to consolidate their position and keep their position.The British breathed a sigh of relief because they were seriously committed to the European war and the war against Field Marshall Irwin Rommel in the desert of North Africa.India has a lot of manpower and army, they are very loyal to the Commonwealth, in fact, during the Second World War, the Indian Army won more than 30 venture capital.Looking back, the Japanese army rushed over Malaya on December 1941. Although the British and Australian armies conducted a firm defense, they were still outnumbered and lacked artillery and tanks.British commander of Singapore, FebruaryGeneral Percival bowed to the inevitable.It followed the imprisonment of tens of thousands of allies and civilians and the direct slaughter of thousands of Chinese and Indians.Among the 15,000 prisoners, the third died at the end of the Pacific War in August 1945, and the loss rate of British prisoners of war was higher.Captain Singh and another Indian and a British officer were forced to hand over a strategic area.Some Indians living in Southeast Asia organized behind Japan's victory to force India to become independent.Pritam Singh, the leader of such an organization, and Major Fujiwara, a Japanese military officer, asked Mohan Singh to use the volunteers of 50,000 captured Indian soldiers to form an Indian Army.(Some 25,000 people joined initially and the rest became prisoners of war.Although the subasbose of Bangladesh traveled to Germany through Russia to form an Indian government in exile, it has never been recognized except for the two major Axis states.However, he successfully formed an Indian army of 3/4000 Indian prisoners of war in 1941 to fight Germany in North Africa.The rebellious behavior of ethnic minorities needs moreThe depth article, but enough to say, has little effect on the far east war in general, although it is indeed the pillar of the Indian uprising that led to independence in 1947.After major losses in Malaya and Singapore, the British were temporarily content to defend India.I digress for a while, but must mention the terrible and rarely reported treatment of INA in Japan.On January 23, 1942, after bombing the town to surrender, the Japanese landed in Rabaul (Papua New Guinea ).For the next two years, in order to protect Japanese soldiers, Rabal dug 385 miles of tunnels on hard pumice volcanic rocks.The Japanese base has never been occupied by the Allies because the soldiers are very good.Thanks to this amazing maze of tunnels.It is still there, and it is strange that it is a great Japanese tourist attraction considering its terrible history.The Japanese want Labao to be their headquarters in the Pacific.Even though they had more than 120,000 Japanese soldiers there, they cut countless deep tunnels on hard volcanic pumice rocks with slave labor.The temperature inside the tunnel is around 45 °c and very humid.They believe that tropical Indians can do this without force in the first place, especially if they are deceived as part of a war effort.All these excuses were abandoned once the terrible digging work began, and INA was treated as a one-time slave labor.They knew that Paul would be attacked by high-explosive and phosphorus bombs, and they had to go deep into the ground.After convincing Captain Mohan Singh that he could lead an Indian army of prisoners of war to fight the British, they asked him to jump from Captain Mohan to General Mohan Singh.Of the 130,000 prisoners in Changi prison, 41,000 are Indian soldiers.From this point on, more than half of the people were converted into Indian soldiers and cheated to fight shoulder to shoulder with the British on other fronts, but were taken away by ships and secretly dumped in La Paul.In December 1942, the Japanese quickly gave up all the secrets and put him in prison.Of the 22,000 INAH soldiers transported to Paul, each died, and only a small number of deserters escaped.No wonder 22,000 soldiers died in two and a half years, the time it took to dig 385 miles of tunnels in hard pumice.Japanese Army and military officers.I won't go into the details of the bloody, but it can be found online.Back to the main body of the article, the strategy of the United States in the Far East war zone is different from that of the United Kingdom, because Americans want to transfer as many Japanese as possible to the Pacific region in order to set up air bases in China.They want to get more action from the British, they feel that the British still have a lot of manpower reserves mainly made up of Indians on the submarinecontinent.A meeting was held in Quebec to discuss future Allied military policies in the Far East.The British were under pressure to take more action, so Churchill joined him.After submitting his novel ideas to the Allied chief of staff, Wingate, he was given permission to infiltrate ideas remotely and directed six battalions.Despite some opposition to the idea, he authorized a long-term return to India.Under the leadership of Lord Mountbatten, the top commander in Southeast Asia, as part of the campaign to retake Myanmar, a series of offensives were launched.Roosevelt left a deep impression and decided to create a similar group led by US official General Frank Merrill Lynch, who directed Merrill Lynch's Raiders (officially the 5307 Complex) under General Joseph Stilwell's Northern Theater CommandWingate's proposal was to parachute or land the entire trained commando team with a glider to liberate strategic territory through his tested guerrilla tactics.In particular, American General Joseph W. has had several political debates at the highest level.Stilwell (\ "Vinegar Joe.") Have a particularly stupid hatred and contempt for the British, calling them hesitant and cowardly, laughing at British, Australian and West African accents.Finally agreed.Wingate's basic theory is to insert his power into the enemy's heart with his consistent stealth technology, hoping that the Japanese will not know where they land or where the army can strike.A) the power of deep penetration, B) the power to stay there.Wingate was promoted to major.But still loyal to the core of the British system-Morale and motivationUse his long-tested Regiment as the cornerstone of his "new" jungle army.He took people mainly from the major.Gen.G.W.Division.Indian Infantry Division, but everyone knows it is Chinese.Wingate has become more and more unstable, even more strange than his previous eccentric behavior.He started wearing an alarm clock on his wrist and sometimes stripped off his clothes while taking a shower, wearing the iconic pith helmet.Although Churchill liked his tactics very much, he and many of his generals began to worry about his mental health and its impact on the war in the Far East.March 1944.This is the second largest air invasion of the war, consisting of 20,000 British and Commonwealth soldiers, with air support from 1st Air Force commandos, the US Air Force.The intrusion and advance is done using columns named like this because all the people who cross the jungle are in one file (which is the strategy of copying after 20 years ).) Each column is basically the strength of the company (about 120-200 men).They carry about 1,000 mules instead of used camels and elephants.Each column consists of four SMLE rifle rows and is equipped with a Thompson submarineMachine Gun, 1 heavy weapon platoon (2 Vex machine guns per platoon, 2 3 inch mortars, 1 FLAME launcher and 2 piat-A commando platoon (expert in dismantling and trapping traps) and a reconnaissance platoon consisting of British officers and Burmese Rifles (Karen and Kachin tribes.Especially the Japanese, they are very afraid of the Chinese using the flame thrower skillfully.The plan is to bring the Japanese in southern Myanmar to the north with General Joseph Stilwell and British Army Marshal William Joseph "Bill" Slim (1st count slim in inpal and Kohima.With the help of the United States, Chindits initially set up three airports in the jungle clearing, namely Broadway, Piccadilly and chowringhee.These airstrips enable C47s and B25H to air supplies and reinforcements, and injuries are usually flown out on small single-engine L5 Sentinel aircraft.One of the airstrips (Piccadilly) was unavailable because Burmese locals accidentally used elephants to dry large teak logs on it.In addition, two airstrips called Aberdeen and White City were built.After the aircraft and glider delivered their personnel and equipment, "chowchowchowringhee" was abandoned and "broadbroadway" was upgraded to include field artillery,-The 81 Squadron's aircraft guns, and even six Spitfire MkIXc fighter jets, are to remain zero and Oscar.The arrival of the fire spray made the Americans rather annoyed because they proposed to assign some Mustang P51Ds, which they later did.In the coming months, China has destroyed Japan's roads, railways, bridges and fleets, but it has suffered heavy casualties again.Shortly after Thursday's "wingsd" Orde Wingate operation, it was unfortunately killed, one of the nine men killed in an air disaster in the United States.S.Air Force B-25H-1-Series 43-nano Cher bomber4242 transport the plane, in quite mysterious circumstances, when his plane hit a hillside near Imphal during a storm in March 14, 1944.November 1950.This is not immediately approved by his family, but because the remains of the recovered severe burns cannot be identified, or the US agreement stipulates that the ratio of 5:4 means that the funeral must be held in the United States.There is a tombstone at Charlton cemetery in southeast London with the name of the major --Gen.Orde Wingate, RA, above, on the north porch of the Chariton House School church, and one more.These are just commemorative stones.On Friday, March 24, 1944, Major General Olde Charles Wingate DSO and two bar commanders, as well as General Staff at the age of 41.Major General Wingate is the son of Colonel George Wingate.I.E.And Mary Ethel Stanley Wingate;Lorna E's husbandM.Wingate, Edinburgh, Scotland (Nepal Montcliffe Patterson ).Command a special forces called "Chindits.The Arab Lawrence commemorative medal, awarded by the Royal Central Asia Association, is remembered with the honor of Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, USA.There's a lot-Wingate faked his own death and lived in the Borneo jungle as some sort of wild man, an unconfirmed story.Not impossible, but impossible.If we pause Wingate's death, Wingate is an unpredictable traitor, and he has enough talent for his senior generals to lift their noses, similar to the convenient death of several other troubled wartime leaders.Died in a plane crash on July 1943, however, he was allegedly dropped or pushed off the plane over Gibraltar under Churchill's direct order, as his actions against the Russian Katyn Forest massacre threatened coalition unity.Others also have similar suspicions that the legendary American General George Barton, after a minor car accident in 1945, even on British film actor Leslie Howard's Flight 777, commercial B.O.A.C DC-Back to England from Portugal in June 1943.It was attacked by eight Jungle residents.88 fighters/bombers were shot down in Biscayne Bay.There were 13 passengers on board, including Howard.No survivors.On March 1944, after the death of wingate travel, the 111 Brigade continued its operations on Thursday.Indian Infantry Division has been directing China before it was disbanded in early 1945.If he were to live, the second expedition would be the highest glory of Wingate, and by becoming the first invasion force to use a glider and parachute carrying troops to invade the Khin-win area of MyanmarThey destroyed railway lines, communications and harassed the Japanese, causing serious damage and panic throughout the region.The aim is to attack the rear and supply lines of Japan, in order to ease the pressure on United States and Chinese forces moving north of Myanmar.Chindits was eventually placed under the final command of Stillwell, and since he did not like the British, he reduced their ability as a good forward, and their courage and skills were wasted on inappropriate classic infantry, not even artillery and armor.The Gur RKA rifle, part of the 77 (LRP) Brigade, is commanded by Brigadier General McKee Calvert, who is considered the most tenacious Chinese commander of Olde Wingate.The column is regrouped as a battalion and is now directed by Lieutenant Colonel Freddy Shaw, Major Jimmy Lumley (father of famous actress Joanna Lumley, who is the champion of the Gulka cause)in-Command.They blocked Japan's dominant forces for two months in the stronghold of Baicheng, but eventually the 77 Brigade was ordered to move north, putting pressure on the Chinese of the Japanese opposition stillwell in the Mogaung region.In order to reach mogog, they had to go 160 miles and experienced a series of bloody encounters along the way.By then, the monsoon has begun, and malaria and typhoid are common among men, and the situation is alarming.With the support of Brigade 77 dangerous patrols, Army intelligence confirmed that Mogaung was under control by more than 4,000 Japanese.When the 77 Brigade was able to launch a major attack, the situation was assessed and it was found that disease and injury reduced it from the initial 3,500 to less than 550 combat effectiveness.There are 230 healthy men in Gurkhas.The plan is to use Pin Hmi road to advance in town.On June, captain Michael allenman's heroic action broke the deadlock ahead of time, charging and mute Japanese machine guns, thus ensuring the capture of Pin Hmi Inn road bridge.It was his first achievement at the Victoria Cross.On June, during the ongoing fighting, he protected a ridge closer to the town, and he again charged the machine gun dens, killing the Japanese.So far, due to the casualties of Company B officers, alldemand has taken over the command of the company.Over the next few days, the Chinese army joined the 77 Brigade to face Mogaung, a Japanese stronghold.However, their infantry just stepped back and did not take part in the final attack, only their Americans provided 75mm guns and some artillery support for the 77 Brigade.The final attack was launched on June.Earlier reconnaissance had identified a building they called the "Red House" as a possible trouble spot.It's the rifle's tubahadur panhadur single.As part of Company B's attack on the "Red House", he was brave enough to face it, which earned him the Victoria Cross.Tulbahaduro's company commander Michael allcommand's third particularly courageous action provided inspiration by charging the Japanese machine gun nest again, resulting in the capture of the railway bridgehanded.Sadly, this time, olmand was seriously injured and died of injury that night.The fierce battle lasted all day until that night.The next morning, a reconnaissance patrol entering the town found that the Japanese had escaped in the darkness of abandoning the town, even though their numbers were significantly larger than those of the attacking British forces.Mogaung is the first major town to reopen in Myanmar.captured.The battalion is now ordered to be stationed in Mogao Ang.July, and then another 50 miles back to India.At Mogaung, the camp took the opportunity to hold a small ceremony and a memorial parade, and the United flag was hoisted on a large tower, the most prominent building.It is believed that the battalion should be honored to do so because it has done its best to occupy a town whose name will always be in one of its best grades.However, the cost of living has always been high.Gur Leca has killed 11 British officers, injured 9, killed 6 British Leca officers, injured 8, killed 109 British Leca, injured 335, 7At a later stage, they were seconded to the American Chinese army of General Joe Stillwell, who severely abused their talents and refused to give them the armored support they needed.As a result, they suffered more unnecessary casualties and lost as many as 50% of their soldiers.Despite the hopeless situation, when they were ordered to advance to Myitkina, Commander Calvert turned off the radio and retreated to Kamaing, ignoring the absurd order.Blackpool had to give up its stronghold because the Japanese occupied the runway of the aircraft, and unfortunately the British forces had to shoot the injured soldiers for the second time, and their wounded soldiers were injured and unable to move, instead of the savagery that left them to the Japanese.They were eventually withdrawn and returned to India and eventually disbanded.Despite constant criticism, the Chinese people are able to work with hundreds of people to achieve what 30,000 Chinese troops cannot achieve.Healthy people are sent back.Training camp for the new action.However, when the army command assessed the personnel and equipment needed to restore the Chinese army to combat status, it decided to convert the troops into Indian air forces.In addition to direct substitution, it is well known that the British elements of Chindits will be destroyed in 1945 by the need to be repatriated to persons who have served abroad for more than four years, so the original form of Chindits no longer exists.We place our hopes on the new Supreme Commander of Quebec, Admiral Mountbatten, and his distinguished lieutenant-major --Unfortunately, General Wingate has repaid the debt of a soldier.There is a genius, he will probably become a person with a destiny.He's gone, but his spirit continues...On the north side of Victoria's Embankment, next to London's defense headquarters, there is a monument to Olde Wingate and his heroic porcelain.His Royal Highness Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, October 1990The front of the monument is to commemorate the Chinese, and also mentioned the four people who awarded the Victoria Cross by the Chinese, Major Frank Gerald Blake, lieutenant Michael Ormand and George Albert Cairns and tubahadur Pan, the rifle's hand.The participating camps are listed on both sides of the monument.Non-The infantry unit is only mentioned by its superior formation.There is no difference between the units participating in 1943 and the units in 1944.The back of the monument dedicated exclusively to Olde Wingate also mentioned his contribution to the state of Israel.China Association of old comrades in :-The T.A.Liaison officer, Captain Wilson at 44 (0) 1902-Use 44 (01902 )-303830 attention marked as Captain BK.The fax machine is shared by others